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The advantages and disadvantages of optical fiber communication The future development trend of optical fiber communication

on 2021/10/20 02:44

Optical fiber communication not only has great advantages in technology, but also has 光纖線 great cooperation ability in economy, so it will be more and more important in the communication society. Optical fiber communication has progressed rapidly in just a few decades, and more than 80% of the world's telecommunications businesses have been transmitted on optical fiber communication networks. This is inseparable from its incomparable superiority. Optical fiber communication is a communication method in which light waves are used as information carriers and optical fibers are used as transmission media. Compared with the previous electrical communication, the main difference between optical fiber communication is that it has many advantages, and at the same time, some shortcomings are also being improved.

1. The advantages of optical fiber communication

1. The promised frequency band is very wide, and the transmission capacity is large: the frequency of optical fiber is 8-9 orders of magnitude higher than that of current cable applications. Because the optical fiber is very thin and the outer diameter is only 125μm, one optical cable can accommodate hundreds of optical fibers. ×12=144 ribbon optical cables have already been completed. Such methods increase the transmission capacity of the route hundreds of times. As far as a single optical fiber is concerned, adopting wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the most effective way to increase the transmission capacity of optical fiber communication systems. On the other hand, reducing the spectral line width of the light source and adopting an external modulation method are also effective methods to increase the transmission capacity.

2. Low consumption and long relay interval: The attenuation per kilometer of optical fiber is more than one order of magnitude lower than the attenuation per kilometer of the communication coaxial cable with the largest capacity at present. The advantages of large transmission capacity, low transmission error rate, and long relay interval make the optical fiber communication system not only suitable for short-distance backbone networks, but also suitable for access network applications. This is also the main reason for reducing the system cost per kilometer of voice channels. reason.

3. Small size and light weight: at the same time conducive to construction and transportation. The core diameter of the optical fiber frequently used today is only a few microns, and the diameter of the current optical fiber with the cladding is 125 μm, which is slightly thicker than a hair strand. Such an optical fiber, 500m long is nothing more than 0.05kg. It is very convenient to accept this kind of thin and light optical cable, whether it is transportation or laying lines.

4. Good loss of density performance: The light waves transmitted in the optical fiber are confined to the fiber core and cladding adjacent to the transmission, and rarely go outside the optical fiber. Even in the position where the tortuous radius is small, the leaked optical power is also very strong. Moreover, the outer covering of the current optical fiber is covered with a metal moisture-proof layer and a rubber sheath, which are opaque. Therefore, there is almost no light leaking to the outside of the optical cable. What's more, long-distance and long-distance optical cables and relay optical cables are generally buried underground, so the security performance of optical fibers is good.

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